Bread is a favorite food all around the world. The main ingredients are wheat flour mixed with water and yeast or baking powder. You could add other ingredients for coloring, good tasting, and good smelling. Then, beating all ingredients and put in the oven.
There are many types and origins of bread. Bread was firstly made around 30,000 years ago. Some said it came from Mesopotamian and Egyptian who discovered a way of crushing wheat, mixed with water and cooked. Then, they kept this food to eat next time. Furthermore, there are some evidences shown that bread had been made since then by discovering many old cave paintings of people giving bread to warship gods. This type of bread was called “Flatbread” because no baking powder or yeast was added. Its color was darker than normal, and it is harder for body to digest than today’s bread.
Bread was baked to eat for living the first time many ten thousand years ago. It started all around the world from Nile river in Egypt to Europe. Archaeologists found evidences that Egyptians started to add leavening agent into bread, since 4,000 years before Christ, helping dough rise and longer preservation. Latterly, each country developed the way of baking bread, until there are many types of bread as today. However, main ingredients are still the same as you will see as follow:
- Wheat Flour: made from wheat through many processing until it becomes flour. There are many types depending on quantity of protein named “Gluten” – more Gluten, more elastic, not mushy, and hard texture. Therefore, each bakery requires different types of bread.
- Water and Leavening Agent: main ingredient for helping dough rise. Without adding leavening agent, it is called “Flatbread” which is similar to ancient bread or “Pita” of Middle-east people or “Nan” of Indian, or “Tortilla” of Red Indian.
- Yeast: the most well-known leavening agent. Yeast eats sugar in flour and creates Carbon dioxide, therefore, bread’s shape is round. There are many types of yeast using in making bread such as compressed and dry yeast. Sometimes, baking powder is used instead of yeast. When baking powder is mixed with water, it creates Carbon dioxide, like yeast. However, bread has harder texture when using baking powder.
Besides above main ingredients, other items can be added such as eggs, milk, cream, dried fruits, spices, nuts, grains, etc.
Types of Bread
- White Bread: There are many shapes such as Rounded, squared, or ellipsoid. It is made from wheat flour (bleached flour) and then sliced.
- Whole Wheat Bread Made from half-whole wheat flour (unbleached flour) and half-wheat flour.
- Multi-Grain Bread: Bread with smell of honey and added grains such as pumpkin seeds, wheat germ, corn, sunflower seeds, and oats.
- Baguette: long-stick bread originated in France. Its surface is hard, but softer inside. It can be designed to be shorter or longer. Its smell and taste are a little bit sour.
- Croissant: it is French word which means crescent moon. Croissant has many layers of bread which contains a lot of fat because butter is used in portion: ½ of wheat flour.
- Chinese Bun: a rounded-bun from China. Usually, eat as a breakfast. There are many fillings to choose. But with no filling, it is called “Mun Tow”.
- Scone: a Scottish snack made from wheat, barley, or oat flour, then baking until dough rise. Its taste is a little salty. Normally, its pairing drinking is tea.